الارمادا الاسبانية

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الأرمادا الاسپانيه والتي تعرف أيضاً بإسم الأرمادة ( 1588 ) ، وتعرف باللغة الإجليزية بـ Spanish Armada ، وباللغة الأسبانية بـ Grande y Felicísima Armada ، وهو الاسطول الذي يتكون من 130 سفينه والذي يضم نحو 30.000 من الراجل ، وهم وجهة فيليپ التانى ، ملك اسبانيا ضد انجلترا . كان من المقرر إستخدام الأسطول في نقل جيش الساندرو فارنيزى لغزو إنجلترا وللإستيلاء على عرشها لفيليب ، وصولاً إلى فلاندر . اتجهت الأرمادا من لشبونه فى شهر مايو ، بينما واجهت الاسطول الانجليزى في شهر يوليو ، حتى نشبت المعركه (معركة جريفلاينز البحريه Battle of Gravelines ) بين الاسطولين فى القنال الانجليزى وذلك في يوم 8 اغسطس من عام 1588 . كانت خسائر اسطول الارمادا الكبيره ،بينما هرب على منطقة الشمال بمساعدة الريح ، وقام باللدوران حول كلا من بريطانيا و ايرلندا بينما عاد نصفه فقط إلى اسبانيا .

ماذات تعرف عن الأرمادا الإسبانية – الأرمادا الإسبانية (بالإسبانية: Armada Española) ، والتي تعني الأسطول العظيم الذي لا يهزم ، حيث سماه الإنجليزيون بهذا الإسم كتهكما . بينما أطلق الملك فيليب الثاني اسم لا غراندي إي فيليسيما أرمادا (بالإسبانية: La Grande y Felicísima Armada) على أسطوله الكبير الذي كان تحت قيادة دوق مدينا سيدونا ، وقد تم تجميعه في عام 1588 لغزو إنجلترا خلال الحرب التي نشبت مابين إنجلترا وأسبانيا من عام 1585م وحتى عام 1604م .

في عصر الملك الإسباني فيليب الثاني “ملك أسبانيا” ، أرسل الأرمادا الذي كان يتكون من 127 سفنة حربية ، بينما اصطدم بالأسطول البحري الأنجليزي والذي سانده الأسطول الهولندي (المكون من 200 سفينة) ، وقد اصطدم كلا من الأسطولان في بحر الشمال ، حيث لاقى الأسطول الإسباني للخسائر الفادحة التي قدرت بحوالي 50 سفينة ، وذلك بالمقارنة مع نحو سبع سفن فقط من خسائر الطرف الإنجليزي . أعتبرت تلك الموقعة بإعتبارها أكبر معركة كانت بين الطرفين بالحرب الأنجلو-إسبانية .

كان لهزيمة الأسطول الأسباني أثراً كبيراً في التقليل من هيبة إسبانيا بإعتبارها آنذاك كأقوى دولة بحرية في العالم . بينما سرعان ما استعادت إسبانيا لقوتها التي لا يستهان بها بعد ذلك ، إلا أن التجار الإنجليز كانوا ذو ثقة عالية وتحدوا الأسبانيين بثقة أكبر في كل أنحاء العالم .

الثورة التكتيكية – يبدو أن نتائج الدفاع عن الاستراتيجية الإنجليزية قد أسفرت عن الثورة في تكتيكات المعركة البحرية مع التعزيز المدفعي الذي لعب دوراً داعما لها . وقد أكد معظم المؤرخين العسكريين أن معركة جرافيلين كانت هي المعركة التي عكست مدى التحول الدائم في توازن القوة البحرية ، وذلك الحدث الجزئي بسبب الفجوة في التفوق البحري العسكري مع قوة التسليح الذي أكدته البلدين .

ماهو المخطط – وقد كان المخطط معتمد على فكرة عبور بحر المانش مع حمل نحو 30،000 من رجال الجيش الأسباني وذلك تحت قيادة اليساندرو فارنيس (دوق بارما) ، مع الإنزال بعدها على ساحل أراضي مقاطعة كنت .

خطوات الاستعداد – في شهر يناير من عام 1586 م ، بدأ فيليب إنشاء الأرمادا ، حيث بنى عدد كثيرة من السفن الحربية الجديدة ، كما قام بتسليح السفن الموجودة بالأسلحة الثقيلة . وفي عام 1587 م أغار فرانسيس دريك على مرفأ قادس الإسباني ، وقام بتدمير عدداً من السفن . بينما إنتهى العمل من خلال تجهيز الأرمادا في شهر مايو من عام 1588 م وذلك في المرفأ البرتغالي لشبونة التي كانت تحت السيطرة الإسبانية . كانت السفن بطيئة إلا أنها كانت سفن ضخمة تضم نحو 127 سفينة ، والذي كان يفتقر بعضها إلى كلاً من الذخيرة والرجال ذوي الخبرة . وفي الوقت ذاته ، كانت انجلترا تستعد من خلال تسليح سفنها التجارية ، مع إضافتها إلى أسطولها ، فكانت السفن الإنجليزية الحربية أسرع وأصغر وأسهل للمناورة من السفن الإسبانية . كما كان لإنجلترا بحارة أكثر خبرة من الأسبان . كان الأسطول الإنجليزي تحت قيادة الأدميرال اللورد هوارد أف إفنجهام . وكان من بين قواده دريك ، ومارتن فروبشر ، وجون هوكينز .

معلومات عن المعركة – في 20 مايو 1588 م ، غادرت الأرمادا لشبونة وذلك وفقًا للتقويم الذي كان مستعملاً في إنجلترا آنذاك . ودخلت الأرمادا إلى بحر المانش في 30 يوليو ، وخاضت حينذاك للمبارزة طوال الأيام القليلة التالية من خلال نيران المدافع البعيدة المدى مع السفن الإنجليزية . وفي يوم 6 أغسطس ، رست في الكاليه بفرنسا . وكان مدينا سيدونيا قد خطط للالتقاء ببوارج تحمل قواتٍ أسبانية قرب مدينة دنكرك التي كانت وقتئذ ميناءً هولنديًا ، لكن قوارب المدفعية الهولندية منعت البوارج من الالتقاء بأسطول الأرمادا .

وفي صباح يوم 8 أغسطس ، أرسل الإنجليز في الساعات الأولى من اليوم لثماني سفن حريق (سفن محملة بالبارود تضرم بها النار) نحو الأرمادا ، وتوجهت حينذاك السفن الأسبانية إلى عرض البحر لتحاشي النيران ، بينما قامت 60 سفينة إنجليزية في وقت لاحق من ذلك الصباح بمهاجمة عدد مماثل من السفن الأسبانية وذلك قبالة ميناء جرافلين الفرنسي ، وقد نتج عن ذلك الهجوم إلى إغراق سفينتين أسبانيتين ، وإلحاق الضرر بالباقي . أستطاعت سفن الأرمادا المعطوبة الفرار إلى بحر الشمال ، متجهة شمالاً حول الجزر البريطانية للوصول إلى قبالة سواحل أيرلندا ، بينما لم يصل منها إلى إسبانيا سوى 67 سفينة .

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